The crypto world is waiting for the balls to begin rolling for the Ethereum upgrade for quite a while. As discussed earlier, the transition of this public blockchain from classic Ethereum to Ethereum 2.0 will be done in phases and will happen over the course of two years. One of the major changes that the crypto investors are most enthusiastic about in Ethereum 2 is the change in consensus — from Proof of Work (PoW) Ethereum 2 will work on Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus.

Wondering what is the difference between Proof of Work and Proof of Stake? …


The revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) came into effect this year in January for many countries across Europe. Banks, Fintechs, and other players in the payment ecosystem have worked hard in the last few years setting up their compliance to the new regulation. Once Covid-19 hit and people resorted to online shopping impacting most businesses, merchants had no choice but to switch to digital-first. This translates to understanding digital risk, fraud, and PSD2 has happened incredibly fast for most companies.

What is SCA and what does it mean?

SCA or Strong Customer Authentication is a European regulation under RTS (Regulatory…


In order to establish themselves in the highly competitive market space, businesses must be willing to adapt and innovate. What no one actually explains here though is, what actually is business innovation, and in which area of business should you innovate?

Explaining business innovation

Innovation is when a startup or an established business introduces new processes, services, or products to affect positive change in their business. This can include improving existing methods or practices, or starting these processes again from scratch. Ultimately, the goal is to reinvigorate a business, creating new value and boosting growth and/or productivity.

Let us understand…


Cryptocurrencies are steadily gaining popularity all over the world but the global regulators have yet not laid down a coherent approach to the taxation policies on crypto assets. Resultantly, there are disparate rules on crypto taxation across different geographies. Here we discuss how cryptocurrency is taxed and how to pay your crypto taxes in the U.K.

The U.K. tax authority, HMRC (Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs) has laid down guidance for taxation of crypto assets in the U.K. Recently HMRC has updated consolidated tax guidance on crypto assets on March 30, 2021. …


The Covid-19 pandemic has affected every sector including B2B cross-border payments. A recent study done by Juniper Research suggests that the cross-border payments value will only exceed the figures it reached in 2019 by 2022. Juniper has predicted that post a 30% growth, the B2B cross border payment value is going to be around $35 trillion.

The research also outlines the potential of blockchain networks in the cross-border market industry and how instant payments can be beneficial for it.

“Instant payments schemes are built on ISO 20022, which unlocks additional messaging capabilities. These can be used to inject transparency and…


Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC) are divided into two different categories:

  • Wholesale
  • Retail

What is Wholesale CBDC?

A wholesale CBDC is for financial institutions that hold reserve deposits with a central bank. It could be used to improve payments and securities settlement efficiency, as well as to reduce counterparty credit and liquidity risks.

A value-based wholesale CBDC would replace or complement reserves at the central bank with a restricted-access digital token. A token would be a bearer asset, meaning that during the transaction the sender would transfer value to the receiver, without intermediaries.

This would be something fundamentally different from the current system in which the central bank debits and credits the accounts without transferring actual values.

The wholesale CBDC is seen as the most popular proposal among central banks because of the potential to make existing wholesale financial systems…


The idea of digital currency isn’t new. Biticoin showed how to do it to the world more than a decade ago in the year 2008. However, when it came to adoption of digital currency, governments were in denial. The stance of China shifted about six years when it started its research on developing a digital Yuan that could be used globally.

A digital Yuan –can this make the United States lose another its technological edge?

China outpaced US in filing patents related to the technology and holds about 60% of the total number of patents filed. Blockchain is said to…


Open Banking aiding collaboration between banks and fintechs

In the last decade or so, fintech and banks have been acting as rivals with each other. Fintech trying to get access to banking data to get customers insights, bank’s reluctance to share that data in order to sustain in the hugely competitive world. Amidst all this, European Union implements Open Banking under which banks have to share data with authorized third-party payment providers (TPPs) like fintechs to develop services upon it.

The initial approach of banks towards Open Banking was not so positive and they were again reluctant to share the financial information about their customers. …


People who have little bit of interest in blockchain are well aware that Facebook has plans to launch its own digital currency as well as blockchain called ‘Libra’. For the social media giant, the journey so far has been no bed of roses rather it had been one full of thorns. From governments across the world making statements of banning Libra currency to its digital wallet being sued for trademark infringement and President Trump coming out in the open opposing its launch — it had all been a bad roller coaster.

Know more about Libra’s journey and its latest changes…


The introduction of Bitcoin was without a doubt a revolution. People at large didn’t think that there can be a digital currency which could be used for trading goods and services (apart from government ones, of course). We all are aware of how Laszlo Hanyecz, aka ‘the Bitcoin Pizza Guy’ traded 10,000 of Bitcoin for two Domino’s pizza. A trade which must have seem fair in the year 2010, when the price of bitcoin was only a fraction of a penny. However, in 2018 when Bitcoin crossed $20,000 dollars, we can all very imagine how that must have felt!

If…

Neeta Gupta

A technology enthusiasts who loves to explore

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